Tomat-O-Mat

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The Idea

Since I'm too lazy[1] to water my tomatoes[2], I thought it would be nice if a Pi would take care of that.

How It Works

A RaspberryPi is connected to a Sony Playstation Camera, a DHT11, some level switches, a relay and a solenoid valve.
TomatOMatSchematics.png

Parts list

  • RaspberryPi Rev 2
  • Power supply for the Pi
  • Power supply for the pump/solenoid valve (12V, 2A)
  • Sony Playstation Camera
  • DHT11 (side project RaspberryPi Humidity and Temperature Sensor)
  • DS18B20 (side project RaspberryPi Temperature Sensor)
  • Lower watermark level switches like this (vertically mounted)
  • Upper watermark level switches like this (horizontally mounted)
  • Pump (bought on eBay, model DC40A-1215 (12V, 350mA, 400l/h (6l/min), 1.5m delivery head, 30.000h lifetime) like this), better yet[3]: Solenoid valve like this
  • Relay board (5V, low-triggered, 2-channel, this)
  • some resistors, cables, wires, boards, and the usual soldering equipment

Sources

00_check_and_init.sh

#!/bin/bash
#set -x

# File: 00_check_and_init.sh
# Author: Heiko Kretschmer, watering-o-matic at wurst-wasser.net
# Purpose: Checking wether the gpio are set up, and if not, setting 'em up.

# Globals
GDIRBASE="/home/pi/Development/giess-o-mat"

# UnMain
"${GDIRBASE}/"01_check_init.sh || sudo "${GDIRBASE}/"02_init.sh

# EOF

01_check_init.sh

#!/bin/bash
#set -x

# Author: tomatomat at wurst-wasser.net
# Purpose: Checking wether GPIO pins are set up

#############
# Check GPIOs
#############

if [ ! -f "/sys/class/gpio/gpio8/value" ]; then
  echo "control file for gpio8 is missing, need to call 02_init.sh!"
  exit 1
fi

if [ ! -f "/sys/class/gpio/gpio17/value" ]; then
  echo "control file for gpio17 is missing, need to call 02_init.sh!"
  exit 1
fi

#if [ ! -f "/sys/class/gpio/gpio21/value" ]; then
#   echo "control file for gpio21 is missing, need to call 02_init.sh!"
#   exit 1
#fi

if [ ! -f "/sys/class/gpio/gpio22/value" ]; then
  echo "control file for gpio22 is missing, need to call 02_init.sh!"
  exit 1
fi

if [ ! -f "/sys/class/gpio/gpio23/value" ]; then
  echo "control file for gpio23 is missing, need to call 02_init.sh!"
  exit 1
fi

if [ ! -f "/sys/class/gpio/gpio24/value" ]; then
  echo "control file for gpio24 is missing, need to call 02_init.sh!"
  exit 1
fi

if [ ! -f "/sys/class/gpio/gpio25/value" ]; then
  echo "control file for gpio25 is missing, need to call 02_init.sh!"
  exit 1
fi

exit 0

# EOF

02_init.sh

#!/bin/bash
#set -x

# File: 02_init.sh
# Author: tomatomat at wurst-wasser.net
# Purpose: Initiating GPIO pins for in-/output
# Important note: MUST be run as root at boot-time - the "device"-files disappear on reboot!

# GPIO numbers should be from this list
# 0, 1, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25

# Note that the GPIO numbers that you program here refer to the pins
# of the BCM2835 and *not* the numbers on the pin header. 
# So, if you want to activate Pin 07 on the header you should be 
# using GPIO4 in this script. Likewise if you want to activate Pin 11
# on the header you should be using GPIO17 here.

# Check permissions (Actually, just export as root, then set permissions for device files, done)
test "`whoami`" != "root" && echo "Must be root (or use sudo)." && exit 1

# The Pins we use, and how: (Details man gpio)
#
# GPIO 8 (Pin 24) - Input (k), reading signal upper water level measurement of reservoir
# GPIO 17 (Pin 11) - Output (c), delivering signal for the pump / solenoid valve
# GPIO 22 (Pin 15) - Input (e), reading signal for lower water level measurement of reservoir
# GPIO 23 (Pin 16) - Input (h), reading signal for upper water level measurement of flowerbed
# GPIO 24 (Pin 18) - Input (a), reading signal for lower water level measurement of flowerbed
# GPIO 25 (Pin 22) - Input (g), reading signal for middle water level measurement of reservoir

echo "Initializing GPIOs..."

#############
# Setup GPIOs
#############

# Set up GPIO 8 (Pin 24) and set to input (should read 0, if water over mark)
NR="8"
echo "${NR}" > /sys/class/gpio/export
echo "in" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio${NR}/direction

# Set up GPIO 17 (Pin 11) and set to output (Pump starts if 0)
echo 17 > /sys/class/gpio/export
echo "out" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio17/direction
chown pi /sys/class/gpio/gpio17/value

# Set up GPIO 25 (Pin 22) and set to input (should read 0, if water over mark)
NR="25"
echo "${NR}" > /sys/class/gpio/export
echo "in" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio${NR}/direction

# Set up GPIO 22 (Pin 15) and set to input (should read 0, if water over mark)
NR="22"
echo "${NR}" > /sys/class/gpio/export
echo "in" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio${NR}/direction

# Set up GPIO 23 (Pin 16) and set to input (should read 0, if water over mark)
NR="23"
echo "${NR}" > /sys/class/gpio/export
echo "in" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio${NR}/direction

# Set up GPIO 24 (Pin 18) and set to input (should read 0, if water over mark)
NR="24"
echo "${NR}" > /sys/class/gpio/export
echo "in" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio${NR}/direction

############
# Init GPIOs
############

# Set output to default (disabling pump/solenoid valve, since the relay triggers on low signal)
echo "1" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio17/value # Pin 11 -> High, Pump/solenoid valve disabled

# Clean up
#echo "17" > /sys/class/gpio/unexport
#echo "21" > /sys/class/gpio/unexport
#echo "22" > /sys/class/gpio/unexport
#echo "23" > /sys/class/gpio/unexport
#echo "24" > /sys/class/gpio/unexport

# EOF

04_check_uninit.sh

#!/bin/bash
#set -x

# Author: tomatomat at wurst-wasser.net
# Purpose: Checking wether GPIO pins are set up

#############
# Check GPIOs
#############

if [ ! -f "/sys/class/gpio/gpio8/value" -a ! -f "/sys/class/gpio/gpio17/value" -a ! -f "/sys/class/gpio/gpio22/value" -a ! -f "/sys/class/gpio/gpio23/value" -a ! -f "/sys/class/gpio/gpio24/value" ! -f "/sys/class/gpio/gpio25/value" -a ]; then
 exit 0 # All GPIOs are gone
fi

exit 1 # One ore more GPIOs are still there

# EOF

09_uninit.sh

#!/bin/bash
#set -x

# File: 09_uninit.sh
# Author: tomatomat at wurst-wasser.net
# Purpose: Un-Initiating GPIO pins for in-/output
# Important note: MUST be run as root!

# Globals
GDIRBASE="/home/pi/Development/giess-o-mat"

# UnMain
"${GDIRBASE}/"04_check_uninit.sh && echo "We already did uninit. Exiting." && exit 1

# Check permissions (Actually, just export as root, then set permissions for device files, done)
test "`whoami`" != "root" && echo "Must be root (or use sudo)." && exit 1

# Set output to default (disabling pump and putting safety on, since the relay triggers on low signal)
echo "1" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio17/value # Pin 11 -> High

# Clean up (Levels on GPIO output pins remain unchanged)
echo "8" > /sys/class/gpio/unexport
echo "17" > /sys/class/gpio/unexport
echo "22" > /sys/class/gpio/unexport
echo "23" > /sys/class/gpio/unexport
echo "24" > /sys/class/gpio/unexport
echo "25" > /sys/class/gpio/unexport

# EOF

10_check_level.sh

#!/bin/bash
#set -x

# File: 10_check_levels.sh
# Author: Heiko Kretschmer, tomatomat at wurst-wasser.net
# Purpose: Reading GPIO pins to get current water level

# Globals
GDIRBASE="/home/pi/Development/giess-o-mat"

# Check if we already set up the GPIOs
"${GDIRBASE}/"00_check_and_init.sh

# Read from level-input (lower and upper water mark of reservoir)
RESERVOIRUPPERWATERMARKVALUE="`cat /sys/class/gpio/gpio25/value`"
RESERVOIRMIDDLEWATERMARKVALUE="`cat /sys/class/gpio/gpio8/value`"
RESERVOIRLOWERWATERMARKVALUE="`cat /sys/class/gpio/gpio22/value`"

# Read from level-input (lower water mark of flowerbed)
FLOWERBEDLOWERWATERMARKVALUE="`cat /sys/class/gpio/gpio24/value`"
FLOWERBEDUPPERWATERMARKVALUE="`cat /sys/class/gpio/gpio23/value`"

# Say what's up!
echo ""
echo "Reservoir water level:"
echo "----------------"
echo "RESERVOIRUPPERWATERMARKVALUE: ${RESERVOIRUPPERWATERMARKVALUE} (0=water higher, 1=water lower than watermark)"
echo "RESERVOIRMIDDLEWATERMARKVALUE: ${RESERVOIRMIDDLEWATERMARKVALUE} (0=water higher, 1=water lower than watermark)"
echo "RESERVOIRLOWERWATERMARKVALUE: ${RESERVOIRLOWERWATERMARKVALUE} (0=water higher, 1=water lower than watermark)"
echo ""
echo "Flowerbed water level:"
echo "----------------------"
echo "FLOWERBEDUPPERWATERMARKVALUE: ${FLOWERBEDUPPERWATERMARKVALUE} (0=water higher, 1=water lower than watermark)"
echo "FLOWERBEDLOWERWATERMARKVALUE: ${FLOWERBEDLOWERWATERMARKVALUE} (0=water higher, 1=water lower than watermark)"
echo ""

# EOF

16_pump_10s_if_necessary.sh

#!/bin/bash
#set -x

# Script: 16_pump_10s_if_necessary.sh
# Author: tomatomat at wurst-wasser.net
# Purpose: Set GPIO pins to start pump

# Globals
GFOLDERBASE="/home/pi/Development/giess-o-mat"
GTIMESTAMPFORMAT="%H:%M:%S"
#GTIMESTAMPFORMAT="%Y-%m-%d_%H:%M:%S"
GTIMESTAMPDATE="`date +%Y-%m-%d`" # ISO8601
GFOLDERLOGS="${GFOLDERBASE}/logs"
GLOGPUMP="${GFOLDERLOGS}/pump_${GTIMESTAMPDATE}.log"

# Check if we already set up the GPIOs
"${GFOLDERBASE}/"00_check_and_init.sh

# Check permissions (Actually, just export as root, then set permissions for device files, done)
#test "`whoami`" != "root" && echo "Must be root (or use sudo)." && exit 1

# Read levels
FLOWERBEDLOWERWATERMARKVALUE="`\"${GFOLDERBASE}/\"11_read_FLOWERBEDLOWERWATERMARKVALUE.sh`"
FLOWERBEDUPPERWATERMARKVALUE="`\"${GFOLDERBASE}/\"12_read_FLOWERBEDUPPERWATERMARKVALUE.sh`"
RESERVOIRLOWERWATERMARKVALUE="`\"${GFOLDERBASE}/\"13_read_RESERVOIRLOWERWATERMARKVALUE.sh`"
RESERVOIRMIDDLEWATERMARKVALUE="`\"${GFOLDERBASE}/\"14_read_RESERVOIRMIDDLEWATERMARKVALUE.sh`"
RESERVOIRUPPERWATERMARKVALUE="`\"${GFOLDERBASE}/\"15_read_RESERVOIRUPPERWATERMARKVALUE.sh`"
#echo "RESERVOIRLOWERWATERMARKVALUE: ${RESERVOIRLOWERWATERMARKVALUE}"

# Check water level in reservoir, so we don't run dry!
if [ "${RESERVOIRLOWERWATERMARKVALUE}" -eq 0 ]; then # 0=higher than mark, 1=lower than mark

  # Check water level in flowerbed, so we don't drown it (and the tomatoes start to rot)
  if [ "${FLOWERBEDUPPERWATERMARKVALUE}" -eq 1 ]; then # 0=higher than mark, 1=lower than mark

     # Check water level in flowerbed, so we don't drown it (and the tomatoes start to rot)
     if [ "${FLOWERBEDLOWERWATERMARKVALUE}" -eq 1 ]; then # 0=higher than mark, 1=lower than mark

        # Start pump
        echo "0" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio17/value # start pump

        # Log it so we can generate nice graphs afterwards
        GTIMESTAMP="`date +${GTIMESTAMPFORMAT}`"
        printf "${GTIMESTAMP}\t1\n" >> "${GLOGPUMP}"

        # Run for 10 Seconds
        sleep 10

        # Stop Pump
        echo "1" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio17/value # stop pump

        # Log it so we can generate nice graphs afterwards
        GTIMESTAMP="`date +${GTIMESTAMPFORMAT}`"
        printf "${GTIMESTAMP}\t0\n" >> "${GLOGPUMP}"
        echo "`date '+%Y-%m-%d, %H:%M:%S'`: Pumped for 10 seconds (approx. 1l)"

     else
        echo "`date '+%Y-%m-%d, %H:%M:%S'`: Flowerbeds's lower watermark already reached, pump not started, we don't want to drown the tomatoes..."
     fi

  else
     echo "`date '+%Y-%m-%d, %H:%M:%S'`: Flowerbeds's upper watermark already reached, pump not started, we don't want to drown the tomatoes..."
  fi

else
  echo "`date '+%Y-%m-%d, %H:%M:%S'`: Reservoir's lower watermark reached, pump not started."
fi

# Just for the logs, not necessary for this script
FLOWERBEDLOWERWATERMARKVALUE="`\"${GFOLDERBASE}/\"11_read_FLOWERBEDLOWERWATERMARKVALUE.sh`"
FLOWERBEDUPPERWATERMARKVALUE="`\"${GFOLDERBASE}/\"12_read_FLOWERBEDUPPERWATERMARKVALUE.sh`"
RESERVOIRLOWERWATERMARKVALUE="`\"${GFOLDERBASE}/\"13_read_RESERVOIRLOWERWATERMARKVALUE.sh`"
RESERVOIRMIDDLEWATERMARKVALUE="`\"${GFOLDERBASE}/\"14_read_RESERVOIRMIDDLEWATERMARKVALUE.sh`"
RESERVOIRUPPERWATERMARKVALUE="`\"${GFOLDERBASE}/\"15_read_RESERVOIRUPPERWATERMARKVALUE.sh`"

#EOF

MORE LATER ToDo-List:

  • Scripts 11..15
  • cronjobs

Some thoughts

FAQ

Choice of programming language
  • Q: Why don't you use python, C or any other higher language?
  • A: I wanted to KISS. Shell is easy to code, easy to maintain, easy to learn, and easy to automate[4]
GPIO protection
  • Q: Why do you connect the GPIOs directly? You should use something like GertBoard to protect your Pi!
  • A: You are so right. I see this as a PoC, next time I will do better, I promise. Next winter comes[TM].

  1. ...and I tend to forget...
  2. And I'm planning to fly to Texas, so something has to tend to the tomatoes…
  3. Ookay, why should you use a valve instead of a pump? The valve will use more power and is more expensive...but it has one big advantage: It is closed when inactive. What? Oookay. I admit it: My reservoir is on a higher level than the flowerbed, as a result the water kept running after the pump stopped. That lead to a bit much water in the flowerbed. In short: IF your reservoir is on higher level -> use solenoid valve. IF your reservoir is lower than flowerbed -> use pump.
  4. Okay, if you need more exact timing, shell is not the environment of choice, but in this case it fits perfectly.
  • Tags: RaspberryPi, Raspberry Pi, RasPi, GPIO, Farm, Farming, Tomato, Tomatoes, Water, Flowerbed, Level, Water, Grow, Robot, Automatic, Automated, Valve, Lines, Fertilizer